Below is a sample report of a patient with generally high risk factors

Heart Risk Evaluations Report

Roberta Jordan
Tuesday July 17, 2001, 8:59 am

Good morning Roberta Jordan. Your personalized heart risk evaluation chart is as follows.

Your score is: 2.6
Your risk level is: Very High Risk

Your score is 2.6. The average American adult score is 1.0. You are therefore at 2.6 times the risk of the average American adult. You are in the Very High Risk category. Those in the Very High Risk category should seriously consider seeking medical attention immediately. For comparison purposes, the average score for your age/gender group is 1.5.

Your results indicate possible Syndrome X, also known as Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance Syndrome and several similar names, usually including the words insulin or carbohydrate. This is where the body has difficulty metabolizing sugars. Triglyerices, blood pressure and glucose may rise, waist size may expand, and HDLs can lower. Usually a low sugar diet is helpful in controlling this.

Your lipid profile is unhealthy. You would do well to either make lifestyle changes, see a physician regarding medication, or both. You can read more about cholesterol and heart risk in the online book, Cholesterol and Heart Risk, accessed from our home page or directly at

Medication Alert! You may need medication for the following:
Blood Pressure
(Please see a physician regarding your possible need for medication)

Color coding for medication alert:
Yellow: Your need for medication is possible
Maroon: Your need for medication is likely
Red: Your need for medication is very likely

You may, through natural means such as diet and lifestyle changes, be able to avoid medication. Especially is this true of yellow coded categories and somewhat true of maroon categories. In all cases please see a physician who will direct you as regards your specific needs for medication. Bring this report to your appointment.

Your 10-year risk of a heart attack is 11%.

Your responses were as follows:

Total Cholesterol: 235
HDL: 45
Triglycerides: 167
Systolic Blood Pressure: 155
Diastolic Blood Pressure: 95
Fasting Blood Sugar: 108
Pounds Overweight: 20
Waist Measurement: 36
Exercise Level: 3 (average exercise level)
Stress Level: 4 (high stress)
Number of Heart Attacks: 0
Years Since Last Heart Attack: 0
History Heart Disease, Bypass, Angioplasty: no
Angina: undefined
History Stroke: no
Family History--Parents: 0 (parent(s) having heart attack before 65)
Family History--grandparents: 1 (grandparent(s) having heart attack before 65)
Smoking: 0
Second Hand Smoke: none
Postmenopausal: no
Age: 45
Gender: f

Color Coding of Responses is as Follows:
Green is safe
Yellow is borderline
Maroon is dangerous
Red is very dangerous

Roberta Jordan, Tuesday July 17, 2001, 8:59 am

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Cholesterol is one of the biggest risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. Total cholesterol and HDL work together. The Framingham Heart Study showed that total cholesterol levels of 150 or less are considered very safe. They are also very uncommon. The higher the level of total cholesterol, the higher the level of good HDL cholesterol must be to offer protection. See our online book Cholesterol and Heart Risk--link from our Home Page--for more information. Your combination cholesterol and HDL levels are considered very dangerous. You would do well to lower your total cholesterol, raise your HDL, or both. At these levels it would be wise to see a physician.

Triglycerides are a blood fat that in recent years have been recognized as a major factor in the development of heart disease. In general, levels under 150-175 are considered safe, levels up to 300 borderline, and levels exceeding this high. Some with very low total cholesterol levels, particularly those on high carbohydrate diets, may have high triglyceride levels. Heart risk is considered to double when triglycerides reach the 500-700 level. Your triglyceride level is considered borderline high. You would do well to lower it somewhat.

Blood Pressure
High Blood Pressure is a major risk factor for heart attack and even more so for stroke. Blood pressure refers to the pressure of blood upon the artery walls. Systolic is the pressure while blood is spurting after a heartbeat and diastolic is the pressure between beats. Normal blood pressure is considered 120/80 (systolic/diastolic) or very close to it. It is generally desirable to have blood pressure at this level or a little lower. When the pressure rises to about 140/90 it is often considered borderline high, and over about 160/95 it is considered dangerously high. Levels above 180/100 are usually considered very dangerously high. If your blood pressure is high it is important to reduce it to normal or near normal levels. Various measures can be taken to accomplish this. Sometimes dietary changes, especially a reduction in salt and fat, will help. Reducing stress is also helpful. Your blood pressure is borderline. You'd do well to lower it somewhat.

Diabetes, usually defined as a fasting blood sugar level of 126 or higher, produces many devastating effects upon the body. Included in these are a tendency to hardening of the arteries, thus leading to cardiovascular disease. It is important to take steps to control diabetes immediatly. With diabetes, the higher the fasting glucose level the more dangerous the condition becomes. Some have found success with natural measures, such as diet and exercise, while many need medical treatment to bring this condition under control. Your glucose level is somewhat high, approaching diabetic levels. Take steps to keep this under control. A physician can help you with this.

Weight and Waist
Excess body weight is a major risk factor in coronary heart disease. Especially is this so where the condition is substantial. Excess body weight places extra strain on the heart, as it must pump harder to circulate blood throughout the body. Everyday tasks, such as walking, require more work from the heart. Finally, excess body weight is frequently accompanied by higher than normal levels of total and LDL 'bad' cholesterol, which further damage the cardiovascular system. Particular danger is associated with a large waist size. If you tend to carry your weight in your stomach, you are at far greater risk than one who carries more weight below the waistline. While being overweight is never good, being 'pear' shaped is better than being 'apple' shaped. Your are slightly overweight. Your heart health would improve if you lost a few pounds. Your waist measurement is in the borderline range.

Exercise has been repeatedly proven to benefit your whole body, including the cardiovascular system. Regular aerobic--repeated rhythmic movements, such as walking, biking, swimming and others--exercise strengthens the heart and lungs. It also tends to raise the level of HDLs--good cholesterol--and promotes general well being and relaxation. Moderate amounts of flexibility exercise, such as stretching, and strength training are also usually beneficial. A good exercise program will likely improve both cardiovascular and overall health. In general, a heart-healthy exercise program is one that is done for a minimum of 20 to 30 minutes at least 3 or 4 days per week at a moderate to brisk pace. Forty minutes to one hour or more 4 to 6 days a week is ideal. It is acceptable to break the exercise sections into smaller units--15 minutes of walking 3 times in a day provides similar benefits to walking 45 minutes in one session. Most of us do well to not turn exercise sessions into conquests, as if we are training for a track meet. We're not, and we'll get more benefit by enjoying ourselves and smelling some roses along the way. Your exercise level is average. You'll benefit yourself by moving up to the next level.

Stress, while a part of normal everyday life, becomes very dangerous where stress is at excessive levels. This is true particularly when the stress is prolonged, or chronic. Stress places excessive demands on the heart, causing it to work harder. Blood pressure and LDL bad cholesterol levels may also rise. Prolonged stress may also have a negative effect on sleep habits, dietary choices, mental outlook and general well being. Your stress levels are a little high--although in this stress-filled world this score is normal. Consider taking action to lower your stress.

Personal History of Heart Attack, Heart Disease and Stroke
Personal history of heart attack, stroke and heart disease is probably the greatest predictor of having a heart event in the future. Those with a history of heart disease should lower other risk factors as much as possible.

Angina is normally recognized as pain in the middle of the chest, especially during stress or exertion. Angina is usually a sign of narrowed coronary arteries and is to be taken as a major danger signal.

Family History
Family history of heart disease is considered a risk factor, as studies have shown that other members of the family are at greater risk of suffering a heart attack. Some of the reason for this is likely genetic--perhaps high cholesterol runs in the family due to genetic factors--while it is also likely that learned behavior is also often responsible--the high cholesterol may be caused by poor family dietary habits. Those with a strong family history of heart disease should be extra careful to keep other risk factors low. Your family history appears to be favorable.

Smoking and Second-hand smoke
Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, has been shown to increase the risk of heart attack from two to four times. Smoking places increased strain on the cardiovascular system and damages the heart and lungs. Smokers also tend to be less physically active, another heart risk factor. Recently second-hand smoke has become recognized as a risk factor in its own right. Smokers benefit themselves, and others, greatly by quitting. Congratulations on not smoking!

Post-Menopause adds to a woman's risk profile. Hormonal changes at this time have a negative effect on the cholesterol levels, as LDL bad cholesterol tends to rise significantly, and HDL good cholesterol may decrease. Although women up to this point statistically have much less incidence of heart attack then men, with post-menopausal changes the gap closes considerably. It is important that post-menopausal women pay extra attention to other risk factors. Though you are not post-menopausal, you are approaching the age where women tend to become so. For this reason it is important to pay reasonably close attention to your other risk factors at this time.

This test, though medically accurate, is to be used as a preliminary health indicator. If you have any questions about your heart health, please see a cardiologist, physician or your health care professional. Good health to you.

End of Report

Copyright Heart Risk Evaluations, 2001


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